Burden of ADHD
Burden of ADHD
ADHD is a diverse disorder with complex epidemiology and aetiology, which can have a significant impact on affected individuals’ lives.
What is ADHD?
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), is a diverse neurodevelopmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and can have a significant impact on affected individuals’ lives.1,2 There are two key medical classification systems used to define ADHD:
- The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5th Edition (DSM-5TM) medical classification system which defines ADHD as “a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development”.1
- The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11), which defines ADHD as “a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that has a direct negative impact on academic, occupational or social functioning”.2
How common is ADHD?
ADHD is known to persist across the lifespan and affects people of all ages. ADHD prevalence rates vary between children, adolescents and adults (Figure 1), and by gender and symptom presentation.1,3-9
SUMMARY OF ADHD PREVALENCE RATES IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS.
Figure developed from multiple sources.3-7,10
What comorbid psychiatric disorders are associated with ADHD?
The majority of adults with ADHD have a diagnosed or undiagnosed psychiatric comorbidity, which can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD (Figure 2).2,11,12
MAIN COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN ADULT ADHD.
Reproduced with permission from Kooij JJS et al. J Atten Disord 2012; 16(5 Suppl): 3S-19S.13
Date of preparation: March 2023; Job code: C-ANPROM/EUC/NBU/0002