Disclaimer: These overviews are not exhaustive of all recommendations and should not be used to guide treatment. Please refer to the relevant complete guideline documents. Registration conditions differ internationally, and guideline recommendations may not be in line with approved use of licensed medications in all countries. Please consult your local prescribing information.
Following a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or hyperkinetic disorder (HKD), in a child, adolescent or adult, clinicians have a range of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options available to them.1-4 There are a number of guidelines available to help clinicians working in the field of ADHD and different guidelines may have different recommendations regarding specific treatment approaches.1-4 These guidelines have been continually updated as new evidence becomes available and new therapeutics are developed, including the1-4:
- Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA) guidelines 2020
- German guidelines 2018
- National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines 2018
- Spanish guidelines 2017.
Please note that this is a selection of guidelines and not an exhaustive list.
It is recommended that a treatment plan for ADHD follows clinical guidelines; however, clinicians may adopt an optimised approach to manage individual treatment.1,2,5-9 ‘Optimal management of ADHD’ may be described as the process where an individual’s level of symptoms and functional impairment are reduced, quality of life is improved and symptom benefits outweigh any unwanted adverse effects.1,5,6 Functional impairment and treatment needs vary throughout the lifespan for many people with ADHD. It is considered important to regularly re-evaluate the ongoing impact of ADHD.1 For example, following transition from child to adult mental health services, clinicians may need to complete a reassessment of the individual with ADHD including personal, educational, occupational and social functioning and the presence of any psychiatric comorbidities.2
- Canadian ADHD Resource Alliance (CADDRA). Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines. Edition 4.1. Toronto, ON: CADDRA, 2020.
- NICE guideline 2018. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng87. Accessed January 2021.
- Banaschewski T, Hohmann S, Millenet S. Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS) im Kindes-, Jugend- und Erwachsenenalter. DGKJP, DGPPN and DGSPJ German guidelines. 2018.
- Guías de Práctica Clínica en el SNS. Grupo de trabajo de la Guía de Práctica Clínica sobre las Intervenciones Terapéuticas en el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH). 2017.
- Taylor E, Döpfner M, Sergeant J, et al. European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder – first upgrade. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004; 13(Suppl 1): I/7-I/30.
- Remschmidt H, Global ADHD Working Group. Global consensus on ADHD/HKD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 14: 127-137.
- Kooij JJS, Bijlenga D, Salerno L, et al. Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Eur Psychiatry 2018; 56: 14-34.
- Hodgkins P, Dittmann RW, Sorooshian S, et al. Individual treatment response in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: broadening perspectives and improving assessments. Expert Rev Neurother 2013; 13: 425-433.
- Bolea-Alamañac B, Nutt DJ, Adamou M, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: update on recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol 2014; 28: 179-203.